Gill Hematoxylin is used as a progressive cytologic staining, while Gill 2 formulations can be employed as progressive or regressive colorings, depending on the duration. These solutions of Hematoxylin are produced from semioxidized Hematoxylin, treated with an aluminium stain and stabilised with glycols.
The complex aluminium-ematein (with positive charge) is combined with the phosphates groups of nuclear DNA (with negative charge) and assumes the characteristic violet blue coloration of hematoxylin.
CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES OF GILL HEMATOXYLIN
Hematoxylin is derived from the extract of wood logs and is isolated as a mixture of hematoxylin and hematoin. For efficacy as a dye, hematoxylin must be oxidized to Ematein, which is then combined with a metallic iron mordant to increase the chromatin staining selectivity.
It is believed that staining occurs because of chelated positivity of aluminum-hematino laden loads that combine with negative groups of phosphoric acid-laden DNA.
Three Gill Hematoxylin formulations are available:
The Gill I Hematoxylin formula is generally recommended in cytology.
Hematossila GIll II is a medium-intensity hematoxylin.
The strongest Gill III Hematoxylin is usually preferred for histologic uses.
Gill Hematoxyiline is used for progressive staining methods.
Gill formulas do not contain mercury.
Formalin-Fixed and paraffin-embedded sections (paraffin sections with a thickness of 3-4 µm) or also frozen sections as well as cytologic material such as urinary sediment, sputum, smears obtained from Agoaspirates (Fnab, fine needle Aspiration Biopsy = needle biopsy with thin needle), washes, fingerprints, effusions.
I) Gill, G.W.: Bismarck Brown and Papanicolaou EA stains. The Scanner. 14 (3): 2, 1975.
II) Pharr, S. L., Wood, D.A. and Traut, H.F.: A simplified method of preparing EA and orange G stains.Am. J. Clin. Path. 24:239-242, 1954.